The following sections cover the software aspects of PCMCIA. Learn more about the kernel modules involved and about the card manager.
The required kernel modules are located in the kernel packages.
hotplug packages are needed. When
PCMCIA is started, the modules
ds are loaded. In
very rare cases, the module
tcic is needed instead of
yenta_socket. These modules initialize the existing
PCMCIA controllers and provide the base functionality.
Because PCMCIA cards can be changed while the system is running, the activities in the slots must be monitored. This task is handled by the card services implemented in the base module. The initialization of an inserted card is handled by the card manager (for PC cards) or by the kernel's hotplug system (for CardBus cards). The card manager is started by the PCMCIA start script after the base modules are loaded. Hotplug is activated automatically.
If a card is inserted, the card manager or hotplug determines
its type and function and loads the respective modules.
After the modules have been loaded successfully, the card
manager or hotplug launches certain initialization scripts,
depending on the function of the card. The initialization
scripts establish the network connection, mount partitions of
external SCSI hard disks, or perform other hardware-specific
actions. The scripts of the card manager are located in the
The scripts for hotplug are located in
When the card is removed, the card manager or hotplug terminates
all card activities with the same scripts. Subsequently, the
modules that are no longer needed are unloaded.
These actions are referred to as hotplug events.
Whenever hard disks or partitions are added
(block events), the hotplug scripts use
subfs to make the new media
available for immediate use in
/media. To mount media
by means of the older PCMCIA scripts,
should be disabled in hotplug.
Both the start-up of PCMCIA and the card events are logged
in the system log file (
The modules that are loaded and the scripts that are executed
are recorded in this log file.
Theoretically, a PCMCIA card can be removed without
any additional actions. This works perfectly for network, modem, and ISDN
cards, provided there are no more active network connections.
However, this does not work for mounted partitions of an external
hard disk or NFS directories. Such units must be synchronized
and unmounted properly. Of course, this is not possible after
the card has been taken out. If you are not sure, use the command
eject to deactivate
all cards that are still inserted in the laptop. To deactivate
only one of the cards, specify the slot number, for example,